Analysis on building energy-saving external wall insulation system

â–¡ Ma Yuzhu, although building energy-saving insulation system, can be divided into four parts: external wall insulation system, roof insulation system, external door and window insulation system, and floor insulation system.

The wall insulation can be divided into the inner side (inside insulation), the outer side (external insulation) and the middle (sand insulation) installed on the outer wall of the wall. When using internal insulation, the wall outside the insulation layer is in a cold or humid environment, the dew point and the freezing point will still form in the wall, and the insulation effect will not be achieved; and the internal insulation occupies the use area, affecting the second time of the household. Renovation. The use of sandwich insulation will lead to structural design and complex construction of the main body, which is rarely used at present. When using external thermal insulation, the wall will not generate dew point and freezing point, which is beneficial to improve the waterproof performance of the external wall, maintain room temperature stability, and improve the indoor thermal environment quality.

The fundamental way to protect the external wall insulation is to develop an efficient, heat-insulating and energy-saving external thermal insulation wall. It is suitable for a variety of structural systems, with reasonable structure, excellent thermal insulation effect, no hot and cold bridge, no occupation of building area, and convenient construction. The investment is not much increased, and the comprehensive economic benefits are remarkable. More than ten kinds of external thermal insulation system technologies based on polystyrene, rock wool and glass wool external insulation have been matured.

The existing national standard external wall insulation technology has the following types: 1 extruded polystyrene board exterior wall insulation system; 2 rubber powder polystyrene particle exterior wall insulation system; 3 polystyrene foam board exterior wall insulation system; 4 Steel mesh polystyrene foam board exterior wall insulation system; 5 mechanical fixed wire mesh frame polystyrene foam board exterior wall insulation system; 6 rock wool board exterior wall insulation system; 7 assembled keel sheet outside the wall Insulation system.

According to the specific construction method of external thermal insulation of wall, it can be divided into: external thermal insulation. The external materials include rock (mineral) cotton, glass wool felt, polystyrene foam board (referred to as polystyrene board), and ceramsite concrete composite polymerization. Benzene stone decorative insulation board, wire mesh frame sandwich wall board, etc. The thermal insulation material is attached to the outer wall by using a bonding slurry or a special mechanical fixing member to form an insulating layer.

The outer insulation of the steel mesh frame polystyrene board is the heat preservation technology developed for the cast-in-place concrete and high-rise residential exterior wall in recent years. The outer wall of this technology survives once, and the wall and the wall are two after being demolished.

Insulation slurry is used for exterior wall insulation. Because insulation slurry is used for exterior wall insulation, and the requirements for the flatness of the base wall are not high, it is easy to input uncertainty/% possible distribution in various serial number symbol uncertainty sources. Factor standard uncertainty 〃 private) /% sensitivity coefficient to synthetic uncertainty pulse count 0.02 rectangle 0.01210.012ur liquid body expansion coefficient 25 rectangle 14.446x10-50.0014uM flowmeter repeatability 0.05810.0587urE) meter factor (continued The verification data gives the heart - if the maximum is 0.3C, then: cr(p) = 2x10-4x0.3 = 6x10-5. The temperature uncertainty of the liquid temperature measurement at the flowmeter being tested is the temperature change used by Ur (heart) The maximum error of the transmitter is 0.2C, the water temperature is the standard uncertainty U(0m) and the relative sensitivity coefficient c(0m) are: the uncertainty of the liquid temperature measurement in the bismuth metal measuring device Ur (the same as above, ur (min) )=0.924%,c(民)=卢民=0.0025. The uncertainty of the repeatability of the meter coefficient at each flow point is Ur (r), which is 161.8m3/h, 110.4m3/h, 60.1m3/h, respectively. Uncertainty of meter coefficient error meter coefficient of flowmeter f=7627.8P/m3, meter factor Difference 4, Standard Uncertainty Subscale Table Standard Uncertainty Subscale Table The standard uncertainty components are independent of each other, and are substituted into the base wall of the shape of the public technical paper. The construction process is simple, and the recycled waste polystyrene board can be used as the lightweight aggregate. , energy saving and waste.

The internal thermal insulation technology has the advantages of less investment, simple construction, etc. The corresponding insulation and energy-saving walls are: aerated concrete wall, clay porous brick wall, hollow hollow block sandwich wall, cast-in-place sandwich wall , GRC external thermal insulation wall, concrete hollow block external thermal insulation wall, fiber reinforced polystyrene or cement polystyrene board external thermal insulation wall, steel wire mesh cement rock wool board external thermal insulation wall, steel wire mesh cement polystyrene board external thermal insulation wall. For economic reasons, the inner insulation is mostly made of rubber powder polystyrene particles, and the cost is the same as the paint finish layer.

The main problems in the internal wall insulation technology are: the inner and outer walls are divided into two temperature fields, the structure of the building is unstable due to thermal stress, the insulation layer is prone to cracks, and the structural life is shortened. Due to the large temperature difference of the external wall, it directly affects the surface stress change in the wall. This change is generally much larger than the external thermal insulation wall. The day and night and the four seasons alternate, which easily causes the inner surface to crack, especially the gap between the insulation boards is particularly obvious. Practice has proved that the internal insulation of the external wall is easy to cause cracking or "heat bridge" in the following parts, such as: the external wall insulation is the seam part of the insulation board, the top layer of the daughter wall along the bottom part of the roof panel, two different materials are outside. The joint part of the same surface of the wall, the T-wall part between the inner and outer walls, and the cantilevered part outside the outer wall. The thermal insulation effect is poor, and the average heat transfer coefficient of the outer wall is high.

Thermal bridge insulation is difficult to handle, and it is prone to condensation.

Not conducive to interior decoration, including the difficulty of hanging heavy objects.

It is not convenient for energy-saving renovation of existing buildings.

Light-colored finishes such as light-colored paints, paints and tiles should be used on the outer surface of the house. In the summer, when there is direct sunlight, the light color can reflect more solar radiation. When there is no direct sunlight, it can radiate the solar radiant heat accumulated in the daytime inside the enclosure structure to the outside of the wall faster. Air conditioning energy consumption is of great significance.

The heat transfer and heat consumption of the roof accounts for about 8% of the heat transfer heat consumption of the entire building, and is also an important part of energy conservation. In order to improve the insulation performance of the roof, thermal insulation materials with low efficiency, low water absorption (or no water absorption), long-term use and stable performance should be used as thermal insulation layer, and the roof construction method should be improved to make it easier to remove moisture. And other measures. At present, the existing national standard roof insulation design mainly includes: extruded polystyrene foam board, polystyrene foam board, rock wool or glass wool board (felt), hydrophobic expanded perlite board, cement polystyrene board, asphalt Expanded perlite board, cement expanded slate, etc., can improve the thermal insulation performance of the roof.

The flat roof has the longest sunshine time, the largest solar irradiance, and the most heat from the roof to the house, which is the most unfavorable orientation of the summer buildings in the hot summer and cold winter regions. Set up a ventilation floor, such as a ventilated roof. An air layer and an overhead plate are arranged on the roof insulation layer, the overhead plate can be insulated, and the air layer can dissipate heat.

In order to improve the insulation performance of the roof, the inverted roof design is also more and more frequent, which greatly reduces the heat absorption performance of the roof waterproof material.

The heat transfer heat consumption of the outer window is added to the air penetration heat consumption, which accounts for about 50% of the total heat consumption of the building. It can be seen that the window is a weak link of heat consumption and is a key part of energy conservation. Improving the insulation properties of windows and enhancing the airtightness of windows are key to energy savings. The energy-saving design of the outer window should consider the following two aspects: the area of ​​the outer window (including the transparent part of the balcony door) should not be too large, and the window area ratio of different orientations should not exceed the specified value.

The so-called window wall area ratio refers to the ratio of the outer window opening area to the room façade unit area (ie, the area enclosed by the building floor height and the open positioning line).

The thermal insulation performance of the ordinary outer window (single glass steel window) is much worse than that of the outer wall. In winter, the indoor heat will be transferred from the outer window to the outside. In the hot summer and cold winter areas, the solar radiant heat entering the room from the outer window in summer is also higher than that. There are many more external walls. The larger the window area ratio, the greater the energy consumption of heating and air conditioning. Therefore, from the perspective of energy saving, the window area ratio must be limited. The west (east) of the building has the highest solar radiation intensity to the wall, so the window area ratio of the west (east) to the wall is strictly controlled.

When the area ratio of the window wall exceeds the regulation, the following measures shall be taken: the heat transfer coefficient of the outer window shall be first reduced, that is, double-glazed windows or hollow glass windows shall be adopted. The use of double glass windows is a development direction and is the main technical way to greatly improve the thermal performance of the outer window. The comprehensive use of insulating glass can also receive very good energy-saving effects.

The heat that the solar radiation directly enters into the room through the window is the main cause of indoor overheating in the “summer heat” area. Therefore, improving the thermal performance and shading control of the window should be the focus of summer heat protection and reducing the load of residential air conditioning. A key measure of summer energy conservation in the “Xiare” area is to set the active shade on the outer window. The advantage of the movable sunshade is that the sun is closed in the winter to make the room hot, and the sunshade in the summer can effectively block the solar radiant heat.

It is considered to reduce the heat transfer coefficient of the outer wall, that is, to strengthen the thermal insulation performance of the outer wall to compensate for the heat loss caused by the outer window.

The outer window of the multi-storey residential building should adopt the casement window compared with the sliding window. The opening area of ​​the casement window is large, which is conducive to natural ventilation. In order to ensure the use of heating and air conditioning, the number of air changes in the house can be controlled, and the window and balcony door are required. Good air tightness, in general, the airtightness of the casement window is better than the sliding window.

Use airtight exterior windows (including balcony doors).

For floor insulation materials, composite materials with good thermal conductivity should be used. The thermal conductivity and bond strength of the insulation materials are better than cement and cement concrete mortar. Good ground insulation materials will promote heat in the use of floor heating insulation. The radiation is radiated, the heat energy is effectively utilized, the heat loss is reduced, the heating cost is greatly reduced, the bonding quality, the mechanical strength and durability of the insulating layer, the leveling layer and the floor floor, the floor tile and the like are improved, and the floor material such as the floor is reduced. Cracking, breakage, chipping, etc. (Author: Shenyang Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Institute)


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